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For theory of cooperation see paragraph 12

Sociological theory

1. Division of sociology seizes aspect evolutional, structural, systematical and cultural. From the point of view of biology, sociology is a domain investigating population, particularly human population. Its purpose is to build general theory of this population on three levels macro, mezo and micro as contrasted to detailed theories, political science, economical, historical etc. So its field can be differentiate from other social sciences as political science, economy, cultural anthropology, ethnography, history, cultural studies etc.
Creator of sociology A.Comte developed one from firsts modern theory of science. Main domains - astronomy and mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology - today at next place we can add psychology, he ordered according to the diminishing degree of the generality - diminishing range, from astronomy to sociology, to which accompanies the growth of the complexity of investigated phenomenones. Whereat every domain previous following determines for its indispensable base. From this theory results clearly that sociology investigates most complexity phenomenones and needs proper methods but strongly analogical to methods of physics or biology. The antinaturalistic sociology being expression of unripeness transfers sociology into a sphere of pseudoscience and rubbish.
As biology come its own generally obligatory paradigmatic theory which is theory of evolution, similarly became with sociology. Thus levering of the importance of theory of evolution aground of sociology is similar to levering the importance of theory of evolution aground biology. Both undertakings are in the same way nonsensical and unscientific.

2. Models are a basic component of the scientific explanation and one of bases for building of a theory. It is worth to notice that organicism or organic analogy was a model and not an metaphor. For a development of culture biomorphotical model (from biomorphosis - human life cycle) seems to be useful - similarly as in a field of physics a good model of a structure of atom it proved to be a planetary system. Last period of development of civilization had impetuous character. What corresponds with biomorphotical model but only in its more exact kind. We can say that phases of the mind of a man correspond to the epochs of the mind of the society but partition on phases childhood, youth and adulthood isn't fully precise. It is known that adulthood phase is preceded by a period of ripening, following after a period of childhood. Just in this period we are found at present. It have started not long ago, about year 1700 and characterize it accelerated and even impetuous development, demographic, civilizational and technical.
Applied effectively in my general theory of evolution (see map of my research) logistic development (diag. 1) is best fitted for its description. Till now unsolved problem what means that stormy social development can find a clear explanation aground of proposed theory.

diagram 1. Logistic development

(the above paragraph is from year 2023)

3. In first period dominated fictitious and delusional representations. Which anyway till today kept the vitality. Still at the beginning the twentieth century came into being the theosophical sect proclaiming the existence of elves, gnomes, and sylphs. Still alive astrology is the same what a divination from scattered animal bones - so from an aleatorily obtained configuration, function of bones fulfil planets; "accuracy" comes from inaccuracy of used categories which each separately can contain any property or notion. Of course, information value of such "method" must be equal zero.

diagram 2. Ripening of civilization. You can also put a backward culture at the bottom of the curve and a technical culture at the top of the curve.

I would also like to consider another hypothesis. Christ encompasses the planetary system, so some version of astrology may apply. As for the zodiac, it wouldn't apply. The same applies to the houses of the horoscope. And the same goes for most aspects. Of the aspects, only the conjunction remains. The meanings of the planets have yet to be worked out, although some familiar interpretation could be used. The conjunction of the planets, the Sun and the Moon with the Ascendant or Medium coeli would matter. As for predictive astrology, directions and progressions do not apply. Perhaps only transits, through conjunctions, count.

4. General civilizational megaevolution is leading from simple backward culture to complex cosmical culture. It consists of three main subprocesses connected with three types of civilization, dependently from their cosmic range:

diagram 3. Sociomegaevolution

- Type I, planetary, is connected with transition inside simple backward culture, about 10000 BC
- Type II, civilization which is entering in interplanetary space, is connected with transition from simple backward culture to complex scientific culture, present and future time
- Type III, which is entering in interstellar space, far future

5. Outline of new religion. I assume that God exists. He resides over space where there would be a higher vacuum (vacuum above the cosmic vacuum). Some form of God includes the planetary system, above all the Earth and the Sun. Christ was one of his incarnations. There were more such incarnations-avatars than accepted in the Vishnu religion, which mentions only ten avatars. There were probably several dozen of them. It dates back to the appearance of Cro-Magnon Man, approximately 40,000 years ago. Of course, we can assume that there were also incarnations in earlier hominid forms, and there were many of them. Christ is an incarnation of a spiritual being of the solar system, primarily the Sun, and can also be called the Sun God (let us recall the Egyptian religion). Although Christ was only one of the incarnations of a certain form of God, he is the last, tenth avatar of Vishnu, but I believe that he was not the last avatar and that there will be more.
Over the being of the Son Jesus extends the much greater and more powerful being of the Father. The Father covers the entire universe with his power. He is also the creator of the universe. Above I presented the order of cosmic structures.
As for the cult of the Virgin Mary, it is false. Mary actually migrated after Christ in subsequent human incarnations and will continue to migrate. Therefore, among other things, Marian sanctuaries are unnecessary. I will also add that the concept of the Apocalypse presented in the New Testament is fiction. Instead of Marian sanctuaries, sanctuaries of God the Father should be built. About ultramodern architecture. You can also simply build churches in honor of the Father, although currently there are Fatherly temples, namely synagogues and mosques. However, the portrayal of the Father as strict and threatening, as in Judaism and Islam, is not correct. The father is actually friendly and gentle.

6. Psychology can appear as domain extremely helpful for build of sociological theory. If because in psychology must prevail cognitive paradigm then also as same must be in sociology, because social processes are resultant of individual processes. Thus society can be seized as system of transmission of data, informations, knowledge, cognition. Completed by transmission of consumer goods, effects of production, money, interpersonal and emotivic relations. It is worth to see that a notion of system is here understood unlike in hitherto existing sociological theories. In society occur cognitive processes, such as if learning, remembering, creativity which an expression is Culture.
It is possible divide in society in fact three societies, society let us call it cognitively exclusive, society cognitively medial and society cognitively poor. Such divide however does not overlap on other kinds of social stratification, such as stratification of the wealth.
In statistics logistic model connects with normal distribution model which is perfectly fitted to describing of social structure.

diagram 5. Sociostructure

7. The most fundamental property of the whole population is development or evolution. The culture or civilization develops as well as the population itself. The second most fundamental property of the whole population is its structure. The population is ordered. It is possible to order the population, for example, through the ownership of financial resources, i.e. through wealth. The third most fundamental property of a population is its numerical size. The fourth most fundamental property of population is that it constitutes a culture. The fifth most fundamental property of a population is its level of development.
In my theory, I use the logistic jump model to describe population evolution. Where the old population is replaced by the new, both in culture, where a backward culture is replaced by a technical one, and in the population itself, where completely new members of society appear alongside the old incarnations. To describe the structure, I use the normal distribution model, where I order the population in terms of cognitive level. As for size, the logistic jump model seems to best describe the process of population growth. And here again the old, small population is replaced by a new, very numerous population. As for the culture, the old backward culture has been replaced by a new technical one. As for the level of development, four basic levels can be distinguished. Backward, technical, developed technical and highly developed technical culture. There are cultures of varying degrees of development in the cosmos, including developed and highly developed technical cultures. Our culture is technical culture.

(the above paragraph is from year 2023)

8. Regarding Marx, about falseness of his conception should testify so called prognoses of Marx concerning future which would have completely to pass with reality. Bankruptcy of cretinous communist systems have showed emptiness of Marxism and boundlessness of stupidity of these which decided thoughtlessly come after Marx. And it was a wide social phenomenon. Still today Marx finds supporters and continuators also in academical environments - fundamental assumption of so called theory of conflict is erroneous, because not conflict but cooperation (solidarity) is base of society. Without it it would not be able arise or exist.
Regarding Weber, the theory on the subject of rising of capitalism seems wrong.
Firstly notion of the capitalism itself which uses Weber is doubtful. Was introduced by Marx, within the framework of his unripe theory. Instead of the notion of the capitalistic society, often is using better notion of industrial society. If we will use this notion then axled will be problem of rising of industry, and for this base determine a development of technics and machines, where axled meaning had an invention of steam engine. Thence a base of development of capitalism in decisive phase was development of technics.

9. Nota bene other "known" German can soon have "a significant" influence on social phenomena. One can believe or not into theory of reincarnation, but for my money this is one from religious conceptions which is valid - of course after certain and pretty thorough corrections, for example conception of karma is in big degree a superstition. Now in years 2040-2070 or 2090-2120 (what less probable, similarly as admissible whole range 2070-2120), it can be expected following public activity of A.Hitler. This information can appear insomuch important that probably he will lead to unleashing of nuclear war, what predictably will cause annihilation of biosphere. It is worth to notice that if he caused eruption of World War II so on the same basis his future political activity is practically tantamount with eruption of world war III (more in my text Return of a big danger...). There is a high probability that the prediction described above will not come true because God may intervene. I also recommend that readers pray to Christ and Father to stop the current incarnation of Hitler from coming to power. There is one more problem. Even if it is possible to stop the current (it is probably correct to assume that Hitler has already incarnated) incarnation of Hitler from coming to power, there remains the problem of subsequent incarnations, influencing them and stopping Hitler from coming to power again. You should also pray for this intention.

10. Characteristics of extended theory of evolution of Herbert Spencer, presents as follows - process of evolution is an integration of matter, whereat matter passes from a state of undefined, incoherent homogeneity, simplicities, primordialities, physicalnesses, unformed, amorphisms, undimensional, uniformity, homomorphism to a definite, coherent heterogenicity, complexities, modernities, cultural, formation, construction, dimensionality, variousness, polymorphism. This seizure of process of evolution has a polycomplex character.

(year 2008)

11. Marxism's errors consist in the fact that 1. The final development is the middle class, not the working class 2. A process of qualitative transition is not necessarily and usually not revolutionary. Even a demographic boom with a growth rate of 2% per year is not revolutionary but evolutionary. Against the background of previous development, it seems very fast, but only because that one was very slow. Therefore, if changes are needed, they should be endeavor gradually, though dynamically reaching them finally 3. Any so called qualitative change - for example, the transition of water into ice, or steam into water - is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time (compare logistic development).

12. As I have already noted, conflict theory is incorrect. Because cooperation is the foundation of society, without it it could not arise or exist. As intelligent beings, we should strive for agreement and cooperation, which seems rationally justified. This approach can be called The Theory of Rational Cooperation. For example, education based on the student-teacher relationship involves mutual cooperation between both parties, in the event of a conflict, the education process becomes impossible. Parts of the social system work together, which is the basic property of the system. The benefit and loss account is favorable for cooperation, unlike the conflict where losses prevail. Cooperation is the basis of social order. As can be seen, reason, and therefore the cognitive powers decide about the ability to cooperate, and therefore the superior theory relative to the theory of rational cooperation is cognitive theory. However, the assumptions of conflict theory are fundamentally wrong.

13. Sociologism (term coined by me) - all sciences, their terms and claims can and should be reduced to sociology. On the one hand, the simplification of science leads to physicalism, and on the other, their complication leads to sociologism.

14. In 2015 Japanese scientists sent 1.8 kilowatts of electricity using microwaves over a distance of 55 meters. Also Japanese scientists from JAXA (Japanese Space Exploration Agency) assume that around 2040 it will be possible to send electricity from Earth's orbit. What I would like to note is the fact that in the distant future it will be possible to send electricity directly from the Sun through wireless channels.

(year 2019)

15. If we want to define the era following modernism, instead of using the term postmodernism, we should use the term ultramodernism, which I coined. The era, which can be dated from the year 2000, under my logistic analysis (compare point 3) can last for many thousands or tens of thousands of years.

16. I consider the entire human population in my previous and current considerations. It can be assumed that there is a global culture with some territorial differentiation. Over the past centuries, this culture has gained previously unknown properties. Among other things, the subjugation of electromagnetism and electricity turned out to be key.
Thanks to electricity, it was created as if a new population brain in which communication, like in an ordinary brain, is based on the flow of electricity. The scope of social communication has developed enormously thanks to, among others, radio, television, telephony and the Internet. It is worth noting that the brain model is similarly suitable for describing the older population, except that the brain of this population was less developed. In addition, planetary culture is undergoing globalization, or homogenization, some unification and equalization across the globe. From these considerations, the concept of population as a brain emerges.
It is worth noting here two circumstances, one is the fact that the brain model perfectly agrees with the cognitive theory of the population, if we assume that the model under consideration is the human brain, because in the human brain cognitive processes prevail. The second is that network concepts fit the brain model very well.
For Culture's memory are primarily responsible its products such as books, and now also data carriers. And so on.
The concept of social brain agrees well with the concept of three subpopulations presented earlier. All manual workers, like the brainstem, are responsible for the vital functions of the population. Intelligentsia in turn, like the cerebral cortex, for the cognitive functions of the population. Intermediate layer for intermediate functions. Intelligentsia, due to the fact that it is responsible for the cognitive functions of the social system, seems in a sense much more important than manual workers, just as the cerebral cortex is in some sense more important than the brainstem. However, this does not mean that the importance of workers and other groups apart from the intelligentsia should be underestimated, because they play an extremely important role in society. Just as the brainstem is responsible for the vital functions of an animal or human organism, similarly, say, workers are responsible for the vital functions of society.
For my cognitive theory, the analysis of the neural network turns out to be crucial.
In addition to the brain model, a model of the cerebral cortex should be considered. The cortical model would agree with the size of the population at the end of the logistic jump, since the number of cells in the cerebral cortex is about 10 billion. The cortical model also agrees with network concepts.
The brain model and cortical model appear to be justified by Comte's theory of science, in which biology is the basis for sociology, and from which the latter science can draw key models for itself.

17. The basic property of a social system is learning. Knowledge as such is practically social, without social interaction knowledge is almost impossible. It boils down to the existence of mainly books, and today also to such media as the Internet. So the social system learns practically everything. On this path, among others, science was created and developed. As part of the system under study, communication takes place that comes to language, whether spoken or written.
Other important properties of the social system are generalization of experience, adaptation, information processing and recognition. Data analysis in the social system makes it possible to determine the causes of failures of specific projects undertaken in the past, thanks to which it is easier to avoid mistakes in the future. There are ten properties of our social cognitive system:

1) evolution
2) structure
3) numerical size
4) culture
5) level of culture
6) intelligence
7) memory
8) language
9) knowledge
10) learning

I discussed p. 1-5 earlier. Intelligence for Intelligentsia is heightened. 95 percent of the population has an intelligence in the 70-130 IQ range. For culture's memory are responsible its products such as books, and now also data carriers. The property of memory is related to the science of history. Language is spoken or written. Where the English language has the greatest influence today. Knowledge is mainly collected by Intelligentsia. Learning was discussed earlier.

(year 2020)

18. In addition to industrial production, consumption is an equally important concept. We distinguish primarily market - goods consumption that occur when the consumed goods come from the market, so they were bought by the consumer. In addition, it is also worth mentioning about social consumption when the goods consumed are financed from public funds, as an example can be the use of public library collections.

19. Apart from the industrial revolution, the French revolution and the sometimes mentioned urbanization, there are also other phenomena of key importance from the point of view of sociology from the last centuries. It will be respectively a scientific revolution started with the work "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" and a technical revolution, for which the invention of the steam engine was crucial and the formation of the United States of America. It will be quite right to note that we currently live in a society steeped in science and technics with significant USA influence on a global scale.

20. From the point of view of the cognitive paradigm, the flow of information seems to be one of the key issues. In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries there has been an improvement in the flow of information in the modern population compared to the old population, thanks to technological advances. Starting from radio, through television and ending with mobile telephony and the Internet. When the old population had only written script and oral communication. These achievements of the modern and ultramodern population were made possible by the mastery of electricity and electromagnetism. The described development is associated with a significant increase in the cognitive abilities of the population.

(year 2021)

21. In modern research, only a new population is considered, which has arisen over the past centuries. This approach does not describe an old population that has existed for thousands of years, but a new one that has arisen recently, as if this new population has existed for a very long time when it is not. It is worth noting that studies of the contemporary population sin the inevitable provisional nature of their results, due to the fact that they capture a new population in the process of its formation only, and not in a structurally permanent state. So a new population is just taking shape, which may take some time, though centuries have passed, and the hint of Gould and Eldredge's concept in biology, where the emergence of a new biological species is taking several centuries, shows that this process is probably about to end.

22. In biological microevolution, a sigmoid-based mechanism works when a certain population is transformed into another population - one species into another. An appropriate mechanism also based on a sigmoid also works in the social area and interestingly it actually transforms the population into another population, the biological species does not change but the social species changes (the backward one changes into technical), the emergence of a modern society can be compared to the emergence of a biological species. With the fact that sociology is limited to only one biological species, while the old social species disappears, a kind of society, and a new one appears. It is a change of species, the old social species ceases to exist, the old population and a new social species emerges, a new population. One social species over the centuries changes into another, hence if that one has existed for thousands of years then this one will also exist for thousands or tens of thousands of years.

23. Among the highest subpopulation, an elite consisting of scientists, artists and writers can be distinguished. Science is the highest type of cognitive activity in the population. Apart from that, art has its own meaning. And among scientists, one can distinguish one more elite consisting of outstanding scientists. They decide on the shape of science and constitute the highest elite group in the entire population. Apart from outstanding scientists, such an elite also includes outstanding artists and writers.

24. With reference to paragraph 17, taking into account the property of the intelligence of the human population, along with the development of civilization, according to the sigmoidal model, there was a clear increase in the level of intelligence of the population. It is enough to mention here the spread of education, which actually covers the entire population. Today's ability to read and write is not unique, but it was not so in the old prejump population. The transition from illiteracy to education should be considered one of the essential features of the development of the last few centuries.

25. Logistic development also used in my theory of biological evolution and gigaevolution (see my text New theory of evolution) proves that the same laws apply to social as well as biological phenomena. This is evidence for naturalism in sociology.

(year 2022)

26. The Gaussian curve (a normal distribution) has found its application in psychology. So far, it has not been used in sociology, except for statistics. As it turns out, it can take a prominent place in sociological theory, which is a great novelty. However, the use of the logistic curve - to describe social evolution - seems revolutionary, and is even greater novelty. The formulation of the cognitive sociological theory, theory of cooperation and the use of the brain model, the neural network model and the cortical model are also a big novelty.

27. The property of evolution listed in paragraph 16 can be considered in two ways. It will be social evolution on the one hand, and the biological evolution of the human species on the other. The evolution of the species should in the future lead to the replacement of the old species of man with a new species of superman. Intermediate links leading to a new species can be observed in a population, an example of such an intermediate link may be A. Einstein. Einstein's 1921 photograph shows the features of a intermediate link. Let's call them "drooping eyebrows", which is a sign of an enlarged braincase (see wikipedia Albert Einstein, subsection: Life and career, subsection: 1921-1923: Coming to terms with fame).

28. More about intelligence from paragraph 17. Population intelligence manifests itself at three basic levels, i.e. it has a three-level structure. The highest level concerns selected individuals from the mass of the population who move the culture forward. Within a social system, a small number of individuals emerge and occupy the highest level. These are primarily outstanding scientists, engineers and artists. Knowledge collected within the population, mainly in the form of books and articles in magazines, and now also on websites, reaches these selected individuals and they transform it into new knowledge (or creativity) thanks to their ideas. Figures such as Copernicus, Faraday, Einstein, Bach occupy the top positions in the entire population. There are, of course, more representatives of this highest level, the mentioned characters they occupy the very top of the level described.
The second, lower level is a much larger number - than the number of selected individuals - of individuals that are responsible for collecting and disseminating known knowledge and achievements. These are academics, teachers, authors of textbooks, outlines, encyclopedias, and in the case of art, for example, music performers.
The third, lowest level consists of individuals who only occasionally or never participate in the reception or creation of knowledge and creativity. These will be, for example, workers, people who have completed primary and vocational schools.

29. Correct and incorrect social processes can be distinguished. Nowadays, incorrect social processes include the creation and existence of totalitarian, communist and Nazi systems. The rise and existence of, among others, the Soviet Union and communist China. For example, the center of Shanghai can be considered an example of the most developed ultramodern architecture (see google, Shanghai, images), but this effect was obtained as a result of an incorrect social process. Therefore, it would be better if this city center was not built at all, and the appropriate development should take place within the framework of normal democratic systems. However, the example of Shanghai shows that governments with large state participation (alongside the free market) may turn out to be a beneficial phenomenon. But today's China can be considered an example of one of the worst and most bandit states in the entire world. The best state is one in which the share of the free market, free economy and liberalism occupies half of the state structure, while the other half is occupied by the state, so it is a half-and-half division.

(year 2023)

30. It is worth to notice that presented by me theory creates homogeneous cognitive sociological theory.

(the above paragraph is from year 2008)

Gregory Podgorniak, Poland

Comte's Theory of Science

Comte's Theory of Science

According to him whole of sciences consists of theoretical and applied knowledge. Theoretical knowledge divide on general as physics or biology, which are an object of his research and detailed such as botany, zoology or mineralogy. Main fields mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology it is possible to order according to decrescent range of research and complicatedness of theoretical tools what is connected with growing complexity of investigated phenomenones. Following sciences are based on previous, for example to methodically coll chemistry, we must imply acquaintance of physics, because all chemical phenomena are more complicated than physical phenomena, are also from them dependent and themselves do not have on them an influence. Similarly sciences classified as earlier, are older and more advanced from these which are presented as later. This theory is clearly analogous to Mariotte's Law.

Mariotte's Law

Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist, meteorologist, physiologist. He initiated meteorological research and measurement. In his Discourse on the Nature of Air (1676) coined the word barometer and formulate basic tenet of physics called Mariotte's law states that at constant temperature T volume V of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional as its pressure p:

pV = constant

its graph is hyperbole:

pV = const = nrT

p = rT / V

Mariotte's Law'

Gregory Podgorniak in 2005 about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During philosophical studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist.

email contact: podgorniakgre@gmail.com

see also my text: How to increase your IQ level ? How to improve your IQ ?

map of my research