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Philosophical research

1.

diagram. Logistic development

Logistic development (see diagram and for example my text Sociological theory) can explain a difference between a qualitative change and quantitative change. It shows that each kind of so called qualitative change, like for example liquefaction of gas, is just some form of quantitative change. Marxists are using conception of change where quantitative changes transform to qualitative change. But this idea is containing fundamental mistake that there is a difference between qualitative and quantitative change.
What I would like to emphasize is each so called qualitative change, for example the transition of water into ice, or steam into water, is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time.

2. Two theories which modern physics is based on is the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). GR refers to great phenomena in cosmic scales, where gravity works. QM refers to phenomena in microscale, relates to particles and interactions. Years of research have shown that these two theories work well in experiments. On the other hand they are incompatible with each other. This inconsistency is revealed in very much small scale, Planck scale. To solve it, one should discover the theory showing a deeper reality, it will be the TOE (Theory of everything), explaining all phenomena in the universe.
Among ancient theories, apart from atomism, we can find another one equally useful theory created by the Greek sophist Gorgias who lived in the 5th century BC, which turns out to be helpful in searching for the TOE (Theory of everything). In the work On Non-Existence we can find the first thesis of this theory: nothing exists. Well, the ultimate basis for everything is nothingness.
One of the arguments of theory of Gorgias was that a being is one or is a multiplicity, but it is not one and is not a multiplicity, so it does not exist. If an being is one, it is either quantitative or continuous. But whatever it is, there is not one. For if it is quantitative, it will be divisible, if continuous can be cut. Being, then, cannot be one.
But being also cannot be many, since many is a collection of unities, so if unity is overthrown then also multiplicity is overthrown. So being does not exist.
Nothingness condenses to create areas above space and the space itself. Space condenses to form fields, fields condense to form waves, waves condense to form particles. This is how matter is created, from nothingness through space to atoms.

3. Comte's positivism assumes that there are only phenomena with no underlying basis behind them. There are no causes of phenomena, nothing is hidden behind phenomena. It remains to analyze the conditions in which phenomena arise and combine them, one with another, with the relationship of sequence and similarity.
The discovery of elementary particles, elementary waves and elementary fields has revealed a new class of phenomena. For example, views of atoms in an electron microscope, traces of particles in a bubble chamber, or fringes in electron diffraction. In my theory, partical description has advantages over wave and field description. In my theory, vacuum is the basis of the phenomenon of microparticles, microwaves and microfields (see my text New perspectives in Physics). However, in the case of microparticles, microwaves and microfields, we deal only with phenomena similar to macroscopic phenomena, only the difference in scale is involved.
In fact, there are only phenomena without any hidden basis, or in other words, a hidden basis for phenomena, what is hidden behind phenomena is nothingness, that is, nothing is hidden behind phenomena. In this way, we obtain a synthesis of the Comte and Gorgias theories. Let me describe this position as ultrapositivism.

4. Popper's Falsificationism seems to be wrong because the theory tests always strive to confirm it or confirmation and not refute it. So this concept is not unreliable with the actual way science is practiced. From the point of view of scientific research, striving to refute the theory seems to be a kind of nonsense and is something illogical.
For example, General Relativity found confirmation in the Mercury orbit anomalies that Newton's theory could not explain. This confirmation is treated as proof of the validity of the theory. Of course, you can give more examples.
Knowledge is inherently uncertain, as the ancient skeptics have already demonstrated. Therefore, science must use invalid inferences. Induction inferences is one of the basic types of inference of empirical sciences. These are uncertain inferences. Deductive inferences belong to the field of formal sciences such as mathematics and logic. On the basis of empirical science, the use of deduction is not meaningfully possible. By the way, ancient skeptics have also undermined the credibility of the deduction.

5. Induction would provide knowledge about the future, as would all scientific prediction. However, any transfer of the past to the future is contradictory, because the future does not yet exist and is therefore non-empirical, unverifiable. Therefore, there is no reasoning that gives some knowledge, because 1. there cannot be knowledge about what is not empirical 2. there cannot be knowledge about what does not yet exist, therefore knowledge by its very nature is uncertain and if it was certain it would have to be contradictory. Still different, if certain knowledge is such knowledge that leads to the future, it can be seen that it is impossible because the future does not yet exist. Therefore, no reasoning about facts can be certain. We can't even know what will happen in a few seconds because the future does not yet exists.

6. Are there general abstract ideas? Do they exist in any separate world or reality? Well, the question of whether there is a world of ideas can be answered in the affirmative or negative if we answer the question whether there are general abstract ideas at all. The answer to this question is that these ideas do not exist. General abstract ideas are contradictory, for example, the idea of a tree must combine the properties of large and small trees, with serrated, round, coniferous leaves and so on.

7. For philosophy not questions are important but answers. Philosophy has not to pose, to multiply questions and leave it unanswered. What allegedly has to be its characteristic attribute. As same as science has not to pose questions and leave it unanswered. A function of philosophy, as same as of science is both to pose as and to give answers. But second are much more precious then first.

8. The development of science cannot overtake the moral development of society, an example of such a phenomenon is the release of atomic energy (under the pressure of Hitler's actions), this example should be a warning to future researchers to carefully present certain results, and hide some facts as necessary. Consider how you can make use of your concepts and the scale of the threat.

9. Marxism's errors consist in the fact that 1. the final development is the middle class, not the working class 2. A process of qualitative transition is not necessarily and usually not revolutionary. Even a demographic boom with a growth rate of 2% per year is not revolutionary but evolutionary. Against the background of previous development, it seems very fast, but only because that one was very slow. Therefore, if changes are needed, they should be endeavor gradually, though dynamically reaching them finally 3. Any so called qualitative change - for example, the transition of water into ice, or steam into water - is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time.

10. Plato proposed an involutionary model of social development based on gradual decline and degeneration. Which exactly contradicts evidently occurring social evolution and the emergence of an increasingly perfect system. Popper, in opposing historicism, did not take into account the theory of Spencer or Comte, where the development is shown so clearly that only a complete fool can deny it, it probably resulted from his ignorance.

11. Most metaphysics is irrelevant because it uses a not-so-precise, accurate, clear language. With such formalization of physics and chemistry, an informal study of reality should be possible, one should only indicate what it should look like, it should be a scientific philosophy, clear and linguistic precise. Examples include the Gorgias system, the Democritus system and the Berkeley system, others include philosophy closely related to empirical sciences, theory of science or philosophy explicitly referring to empirical sciences.

12. Characteristics of extended theory of evolution of Herbert Spencer, presents as follows - process of evolution is an integration of matter, whereat matter passes from a state of undefined, incoherent homogeneity, simplicities, primordialities, physicalnesses, unformed, amorphisms, undimensional, uniformity, homomorphism to a definite, coherent heterogenicity, complexities, modernities, culture, formation, construction, dimensionality, variousness, polymorphism. This seizure of process of evolution has a polycomplex character.

13. Astrology is the same what a divination from scattered animal bones - so from an aleatorily obtained configuration, function of bones fulfil planets; "accuracy" comes from inaccuracy of used categories which each separately can contain any property or notion. Of course, information value of such "method" must be equal zero.

14. Against claims of such fools as Popper atomism does not descend from metaphysical speculations. Democritus took over this view from Hindus during his travels in the east, conception of atoms existed there at the very latest about VIII century BC, and was based on paranormal perceptions of yogis - a source could be only paranormal activity, but for sure not philosophical speculation, in Europe spherical atoms appeared not before XIX century AD.

15. The basic errors of typical philosophy are rationalism and turbidity. For example, Kant seems to build a system that does not respect the principles of empiricism, and this alone means that its concept must be wrong at its very root. In addition, the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Hegel or Kant seem unbearably cloudy.

Gregory Podgorniak, Poland (2021)

Comte's Theory of Science

Comte's Theory of Science

According to him whole of sciences consists of theoretical and applied knowledge. Theoretical knowledge divide on general as physics or biology, which are an object of his research and detailed such as botany, zoology or mineralogy. Main fields mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology it is possible to order according to decrescent range of research and complicatedness of theoretical tools what is connected with growing complexity of investigated phenomenones. Following sciences are based on previous, for example to methodically coll chemistry, we must imply acquaintance of physics, because all chemical phenomena are more complicated than physical phenomena, are also from them dependent and themselves do not have on them an influence. Similarly sciences classified as earlier, are older and more advanced from these which are presented as later. This theory is clearly analogous to Mariotte's Law.

Mariotte's Law

Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist, meteorologist, physiologist. He initiated meteorological research and measurement. In his Discourse on the Nature of Air (1676) coined the word barometer and formulate basic tenet of physics called Mariotte's law states that at constant temperature T volume V of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional as its pressure p:

pV = constant

its graph is hyperbole:

pV = const = nrT

p = rT / V

Mariotte's Law'

Gregory Podgorniak in 2005 about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During philosophical studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist.

email contact: podgorniakgr@gmail.com

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